Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) farming was first commercially explored in Norway in the 1980s following the breakthrough of juvenile production, but the industry disappeared after just a few years. Cod aquaculture re-emerged around the start of the millennium, again mainly in Norway but also in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Iceland.

At that time, juvenile cod production technology was further developed and large hatcheries, based on intensive production systems similar to those use…